Coconut fruit is a tropical fruit produced from the Cocos nucifera plant, belonging to the Arecaceae or palm-pale man family. Coconuts are round in shape on some sides, slightly angular, about the size of a human head. The color of coconuts is green and some are yellow depending on the variety. Coconut flesh is wrapped in the outer skin in the form of thick fibers and the inside is hardwood or shell. Coconut shell wraps clean white flesh and fruit juice. The water contained in the clear fruit is slightly cloudy, it tastes sweet and refreshing. Coconut plant habitat is in tropical lowlands. This plant has a high tolerance for high salinity soil, therefore it is often found growing on the coast. Even so, coconut trees can still grow in the highlands but their development is slower.
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) belongs to the genus Cocos and can grow easily in the tropics. Coconut plants are often found in coastal areas because they require high humidity. Coconut fruit is elliptical in shape with a size approximately the size of a human head. The composition of coconut fruit consists of 33 percent coir, 12 percent shell, 28 percent flesh, and 25 percent water. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a type of palm plant that has large fruit. Coconut tree trunks generally stand upright and unbranched and can reach 10-14 meters more. The leaves are midrib; the length can reach 3-4 meters with fins sticks that support each strand.
The fruit is wrapped in fibers and the shell is strong enough so that to get a coconut, it must be peeled first. A large and fertile coconut can produce 2-10 coconuts per stalk. Coconut is estimated to be found in more than 80 countries. Indonesia is an agricultural country that occupies the third position after the Philippines and India, as the largest coconut producer in the world. Coconut plants belong to the Palmae family. Coconut species are divided into three varieties, namely the typical NarNana Griff. and aurantiaca Liy. In Indonesia, the typical variety is Nar. and aurantiaca Liy. Known as the deep coconut, while the Nana variety is Griff. known as the early coconut. In general, coconuts have a long life (60-80 years) and are slow to bear fruit (fruits only at the age of 6-10 years), while early maturing coconuts have a shorter lifespan (30-40 years), but bear fruit more quickly (bearing fruit at the age of 3-10 years). 4 years).
The average size of deep coconuts (typical Nar. variety) is larger than that of early ripe coconuts (Griff’s nana variety) and the flesh of deep coconuts is generally thicker. Coconut flesh has a different composition at various levels of maturity. Coconut fruit is round in shape consisting of 35% coir (exocarp and mesocarp), 12% shell (endocarp), 28% flesh (endosperm), and 25% water. Mature coconuts contain high calories, amounting to 359 cal per 100 grams; Half-aged coconut meat contains 180 calories per 100 grams. Fresh coconut contains 30-50% oil, when dried into copra the fat content reaches 63-65%. Oil content is strongly influenced by the level of aging of the fruit, the older the fruit, the higher the oil content. Coconuts that are old or ripe are generally harvested at the age of 11-12 months. Therefore, suitable coconuts to be processed into virgin coconut oil must be 12 months old.
Coconut is one type of multipurpose plant and has a high economic value. All parts of the coconut tree can provide benefits to humans from the roots to the leaves and of course the fruit. Well, here are some of the benefits of coconut trees for humans, namely :
- At the root, it can be used as raw material for brewing dyes.
- In the stem, which is used as a home furnishings, furniture, wood or firewood.
- The leaves, namely coconut leaves, can be used as wrapping material or woven to be used as roofs, while the sticks are usually used to make brooms.
- The flower part is to produce a liquid known as nira water which has a sweet taste, it can be used as raw material for making sugar sap or as a drink.
- The fruit for this section consists of the skin (coir), shell, coconut meat and coconut water. The skin of the fruit (coconut husk) is often used as a raw material for making doormats, the coconut shell can be used as charcoal, coconut fruit for consumption or processed into coconut oil, and coconut water as a thirst quencher and is also useful as a medicinal plant to improve health on the body.